Rising from the remains of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, Turkey inherited many ethnic and sociological problems from its predecessor. Of these the Kurdish question has been the most challenging one to the state itself. The young republic survived many revolts in its predominantly Kurdish-inhabited southeastern regions, but the PKK (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan: Kurdistan Workers Party) has been the most crucial threat to the integrity of the country. During the 1960s Turkey was a battlefield for many right and left wing groups and organizations, resulting with the 1980 coup d'etat. Based on the ethnic strains and socio-economic inequity, the PKK was configured as a Marxist-Leninist organization, with both political and armed branches. Virtual elimination of almost all leftist organizations during the 1980 coup helped the PKK flourish in its hometown. Eliminating rival Kurdish organizations with brutal blows, the PKK successfully constructed both its ideological and logistical foundation.
The PKK's first armed assaults against the Turkish Army and police units as well as the local population in 1984 caught the government by complete surprise. Measures against small militant groups hiding in the mountainous terrain of the southeastern Anatolia were initially police tactics, which proved highly ineffective. After the initial shock, the Turkish government started to employ a highly innovative low intensity conflict strategy, marked by the 'area dominance' motto. The government forces started to use guerilla warfare tactics, supported by close air support of the Turkish Air Force. Starting from early 1990s, this change of paradigm struck a deadly blow to the PKK, followed by the expulsion of its leader, Abdullah Ocalan from Syria in 1998 after a threat of war by the Turkish government.
The capture of Abdullah Ocalan by an operation of the country's intelligence service marked the start of a new chapter in the war against the PKK. Withdrawal of militant groups from Turkey in 1999 turned out to be a reorganization period, which was followed by a rise in the number of attacks after 2004. To solve the Gordion knot, the Turkish government started a socio-political initiative, dubbed'the opening', which resulted in the PKK leader's call for withdrawal. This war which has been going on for around 30 years is yet to be concluded, but deserves special attention, not only because it affects a large region and but also because it provides a valuable comparison to many intertwined geopolitical conflicts.
Asia@War - following on from our highly-successful Africa@War series, Asia@War replicates the same format - concise, incisive text, rare images and high quality colour artwork providing fresh accounts of both well-known and more esoteric aspects of conflict in this part of the world since 1945.
The Sourcebook of the Sikh Wars is the first comprehensive work dealing with the Anglo-Sikh Wars fought in India between 1845 and 1849. The book provides a brief political background of the conflict, a concise account of both Sikh Wars, the actions that led to them, and a detailed description of the armies involved.
Now, for the first time ever, an exhaustive account of the formation and rise of the Sikh Khalsa has been written, where every single battalion, cavalry regiment and artillery derah, along with the infamous Ghorchurra regiments, is traced from its initial formation to final engagement in battle. From an original band of knights errant and freebooters to the first experimental battalions and finally as the famed 'brigades' created by former Napoleonic army officers, all Sikh formations and their commanding officers are tracked on an annual basis.
The Anglo-Indian army is also well covered. Drawing from original and often long ignored documents, detailed Orders of Battle are presented for the very first time, correcting serious errors that have crept into almost every account since the first battlefield reports were written. Included in these documents are the full name, rank and unit affiliation not only of unit commanders, but army and personal staff and foreign observers.
While the Orders of Battle are the heart and soul of the work, the book also includes an abundance of new material, such as'Daily March and Event' logs for each major formation during the wars, tracing exactly where an army or column was on a given day. An account of the superlative Sikh artillery, along with a rare contemporary pamphlet written by a senior officer defending his actions at a crucial battle, is included. Also featured are several sidebars dealing with unit march rates, how to feed a column, how to deal with an incompetent commander and much more. Finally, the book contains a detailed bibliography, and the first comprehensive glossary on the subject.
The Sourcebook of the Sikh Wars is the first ever all-encompassing study of the conflict between the Sikh Khalsa and the British East India Company and will be a must have on the bookshelf of any student of India's colonial era and wars.
World War II sent the youth of the world across the globe in odd alliances against each other. Never before had a conflict been fought simultaneously in so many diverse landscapes on premises that often seemed unrelated. Never before had a conflict been fought in so many different ways - from rocket attacks on London to jungle fighting in Burma to armor strikes in Libya. It was only in time that these battles coalesced into one war.
In The Second World Wars, esteemed military historian Victor Davis Hanson examines how and why this happened, focusing in detail on how the war was fought in the air, at sea, and on land-and thus where, when, and why the Allies won. Throughout, Hanson also situates World War II squarely within the history of war in the West over the past 2,500 years. In profound ways, World War II was unique: the most lethal event in human history, with 50 million dead, the vast majority of them civilians. But, as Hanson demonstrates, the war's origins were not entirely novel; it was reformulations of ancient ideas of racial and cultural superiority that fueled the global bloodbath.
The German heavy cruiser PRINZ EUGEN was an enlarged version of the Admiral Hipper class ships. The keel was laid on 23 April 1936, she was launched on 22 August 1938, and commissioned on 1 August 1940. She took part in the first mission of the battleship BISMARCK, during which they sank the British battlecruiser HMS HOOD. Having split with BISMARCK, PRINZ EUGEN was supposed to commence hunting the Allied convoys, but due to engine failure she sailed back to France. Once repaired, she participated in Operation "Cerberus" - the passage of German ships from France to Germany through English Channel.