In his book Magnus Nordenman sets out to explore the emerging competition between the United States and its allies in NATO and the resurgent Russian navy in the North Atlantic. The North Atlantic played a key role in the two world wars and the Cold War as the strategic link between the United States and Europe that allowed reinforcements and supplies to flow to embattled allies. Nordenman shows that while a conflict in Europe has never been won in the North Atlantic it surely has been lost there. However the North Atlantic fell away from attention as the Cold War ended the Russian navy fell into decay and the United States and its allies turned to counter-terrorism and expeditionary operations in the far corners of the earth.With Vladimir Putin's Russia threatening the peace in Europe since the annexation of Crimea in 2014 the North Atlantic and other maritime domains around Europe are once again coming into focus. But this battle will be different Nordenman shows due to an overstretched US Navy disruptive technologies a NATO that woke up to the Russian challenge while essentially unprepared for high-end warfighting in the maritime domain and a Russia that commands a far smaller but more sophisticated navy equipped with long-range cruise missiles that have already been used in operations in Syria. Nordenman concludes that the new contest in the North Atlantic will not be about keeping the sea lanes open or facing down a Russian anti-shipping campaign in the vast expanses of the ocean. Instead the Russian threat comes from submarines operating in the far North Atlantic where they can strike at targets across Europe using long-range cruise missiles.Nordenman's book describes the evolution of warfare in the North Atlantic in the 20th century and points to the enduring strategic factors and dynamics in that maritime domain that must be kept in mind as the United States and NATO devises new strategies for defense and deterrence in the North Atlantic. He also highlights how the strategic and operational environment has changed since the end of the Cold War with the coming of new technologies new players in the North Atlantic and the new Russian way of war in the maritime domain. He concludes with a set of recommendations for the United States and its NATO allies on how to build an effective approach to ensuring that the North Atlantic remains an open bridge between North America and Europe in both peace and war.
Why did Britain and Argentina go to war over a wintry archipelago that was home to an unprofitable colony? Could the Falklands War, in fact, have been a last-ditch revival of Britain's imperial past? Despite widespread conjecture about the imperial dimensions of the Falklands War, this is the first history of the conflict from the transnational perspective of the British world. Taking Britain's painful process of decolonisation as his starting point, Ezequiel Mercau shows how the Falklands lobby helped revive the idea of a 'British world', transforming a minor squabble into a full-blown war. Boasting original perspectives on the Falklanders, the Four Nations and the Anglo-Argentines, and based on a wealth of unseen material, he sheds new light on the British world, Thatcher's Britain, devolution, immigration and political culture. His findings show that neither the dispute, the war, nor its aftermath can be divorced from the ongoing legacies of empire.
This book provides a complete and detailed analysis of the organization and equipment employed by the armies of the Hellenistic States. After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC, his immense Macedonian empire was divided between his ambitious generals, who in turn formed their own monarchies across Eastern Europe, Asia and North Africa. This work will follow the development of the Hellenistic military forces from the army bequeathed by Alexander the Great to the complex military machines that succumbed one by one in the wars against the expanding Romans. As decades and centuries progressed, Hellenistic warfare became always more sophisticated: the 'diadochi' (Alexander's successors) could field armies with thousands of men, chariots, elephants and siege machines; these came from all the territories of the former Macedonian Empire. The book will also show how Hellenistic forces were strongly influenced by Roman models during the last years of independence of their kingdoms. The states analysed are: Macedon, Seleucid Empire, Ptolemaic Egypt, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Armenia, Pergamon, Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, Bosporan Kingdom, Epirus, Sicily, Achaean League and Aetolian League.
In June 1944, Allied forces fighting desperately to establish a foothold in Normandy and then breakout of the confining bocage found themselves opposed by a bewildering array of formations of the German Wehrmacht. Among them were the newly formed German II Parachute Corps. This gripping new account examines the exploits of Germany's II Parachute Corps and its commander, Eugen Meindl from the Allied invasion on 6 June to the end of August 1944. Meindl was the epitome of the senior German airborne commander in the Second World War. Tough, experienced, and aggressive, he cared deeply for his troops. His Parachute Corps fought stubbornly for three weeks, before being forced to fall back. Trapped along with the bulk of the German Seventh Army in the Falaise pocket, Meindl and his paratroopers maintained their discipline and were selected by the Commander in Chief of OB West to lead the German breakout to the east. That they managed to do so, despite suffering grievous losses, while so many around them died or surrendered, is a testament to their dedication and fighting ability. Theirs is a story that deserves to be told.
Poland was re-created as an independent nation at the end of the First World War, but it soon faced problems as Nazi Germany set about expanding its control on Europe. The Wehrmacht's attack on 1 September 1939 was followed by a Red Army invasion two weeks later.
The people of Poland were then subjected to a terrifying campaign of murder, imprisonment and enslavement which only increased as the war dragged on. Polish Catholics faced violence and deportation as they adapted to the draconian laws implemented by the German authorities. Meanwhile, the Polish Jews were forced into ghettos while the plans for the Final Solution were implemented. They then faced annihilation in the Holocaust, code named Operation Reinhard.
Despite the dangers, many Poles joined the underground war against their oppressors, while those who escaped sought to fight for their nation's freedom from abroad. They sent intelligence to the west, attacked German installations, carried out assassinations and rose up to confront their enemy, all against impossible odds. The advance of the Red Army brought new problems, as the Soviet's dreaded NKVD introduced its own form of terror, hunting down anyone who fought for an independent nation.
The story concludes with Poland's experience behind the Iron Curtain, ending with the return of democracy by 1991