Prior to the beginning of the Second World War, the Royal Hungarian Armed Forces - including the Air Force - prepared to engage the Little Entente forces; however, after a short skirmish prior to the war with the Slovaks, during the war, their opponents became the Soviet and American aviators. The Hungarian aces fought gallantly against such heavy odds and, after the war's end, the new Hungarian communist regime turned against them as well; this book is the unique story of the 38 Hungarian air aces of the Second World War. The overwhelming majority of the related materials have been lost or destroyed, so the author has demonstrated truly Herculean efforts during his 23-year-long extensive research to write this monumental work. The book is based mostly on previously unpublished primary sources from Hungarian, German, Russian and American Archives, and also on the preserved documents of the aces and their families. The text is not limited to the highly detailed biographies of the 38 Hungarian aces; it also covers some important and related aspects such as air victory confirmation systems, air combat tactics and obtained awards. Besides this, the book contains more than 350 rare images - many of them are previously unpublished - and a selection of superb colour profiles, which show camouflage and markings for the aircraft of the aces.
Here is an unpublished work about the Wallonie Legion and its members engaged on the Eastern Front in the uniform of the Heer from 1941 to 1945. Here the reader will dive into the archives and documents still mostly unpublished to this date, including previously unedited stories and also tales of the legionnaires. It offers biographies of most of the officers. One will also find rare and previously unseen archives of newspapers and propaganda for the Wallonie Legion, shedding light on its development and international reputation, so important to the morale of the Legionaries and the families of these men.
This work is rich in both written and photographic documentation along with previously undisclosed information about the activities and services LW. It will provide researchers and amateur historians of the Legion many details and clarifications about the"uses and customs," service organisations and actions both inside and outside the LW.
Early in the morning of 2 August 1990, aircraft of the Iraqi Air Force bombed Kuwaiti air bases, and then the Iraqi Republican Guards stormed into the country. Thus began what would be called the `Gulf War' - also the `II Gulf War', and sometimes the `II Persian Gulf War' - fought between January and March 1991.
Although encountering some problems, the Iraqi forces occupied Kuwait in a matter of few days. However, when President Saddam Hussein of Iraq unleashed his military upon Kuwait, little did he know what kind of reaction he would provoke from the Western superpowers, and what kind of devastation his country would suffer in return.
Concerned about the possibility of Iraq continuing its advance into Saudi Arabia, the USA - in coordination with Great Britain, France, and several local allies - reacted by deploying large contingents of their air-, land- and naval forces to the Middle East.
Months of fruitless negotiations and the continuous military build-up - Operation Desert Shield - followed, as tensions continued to increase. Determined to retain Kuwait, and despite multiple warnings from his own generals, Saddam Hussein rejected all demands to withdraw. The USA and its allies, `the Coalition', were as determined to drive out the invader and restore Kuwaiti independence. Gradually, they agreed this would have to be by force.
Following an authorisation from the United Nations, the Coalition launched the Operation Desert Storm, on 17 January 1991, opening one of the most intensive air campaigns in history. The last conventional war of the 20th Century saw the large, but essentially traditional, Iraqi Army overwhelmed by forces trained and equipped to exploit the latest technologies.
Desert Storm reveals the whole war fought between Iraq and an international coalition, from the start of this campaign to its very end. Largely based on data released from official archives, spiced with numerous interviews, and illustrated with over 100 photographs, 18 colour profiles and maps, it offers a refreshing insight into this unique conflict.
The main theme of this book is the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the defences it constructed in France during September 1939-May 1940. Although there have been many books written about the BEF, virtually all deal with the campaign in France and Flanders that cumulated in the evacuation from Dunkirk. No detailed account has ever been published on the defences the BEF built in the Secteur Defensive de Lille - the front allocated to it by the French - along the Franco-Belgium border. This account of the Gort Line aims to fill this gap in our knowledge of Second War defences.
The book's objective is to broadly answer four questions: Firstly, what events led to the Gort Line being built? Secondly, what defences were built and what were the ideas behind them - did they reflect a flawed `Maginot' mentality? The third question is what exactly did the BEF do in France during the Sitzkrieg? And fourthly, how relevant was the Gort Line to what was done in Britain in respect of the anti-invasion defences immediately after Dunkirk?
The book starts by looking at the historical context, with a review of how the inter-war years shaped the grand strategy of Britain, France and Germany. In doing so, it can be understood why the BEF dug in along the Franco-Belgian border alongside their French allies. Having set the historical context, the book will describe how the Gort Line was set out with reference to British principles governing the employment of all arms in positional warfare. Chapters will deal with the construction of the Gort Line and its defences: the pillboxes, field works, obstacles and demolitions. A chapter will describe the activities of the BEF - including training - and a glimpse at what life was like for the ordinary soldier while `holding' the Gort Line. Allied higher strategy, determined by the French as the senior partner, is outlined in a chapter and this gives the context as to why the BEF did not fight on the Gort Line. Instead, French strategy committed it to rush into Belgium alongside the French Army and the Gort Line was in effect relegated to a reserve position. The Sitzkrieg ended violently with the German Blitzkrieg and the events of those three weeks are described, when the Gort Line was actually occupied - albeit briefly - by the BEF and French. Finally, the book will look at Britain's anti-invasion defences immediately after Dunkirk and the influence the Gort Line had on these.
In 1962 Dean Acheson famously described Britain as having lost an Empire but not yet found a role. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than in the realms of nuclear weapons. An increasingly marginal world power, successive post-war British governments felt that an independent nuclear deterrent was essential if the country was to remain at the top table of world diplomacy. Focusing on a key twenty-year period, this study explores Britain's role in efforts to bring about a nuclear test ban treaty between 1954 and 1973. Taking a broadly chronological approach, it examines the nature of defence planning, the scientific goals that nuclear tests were designed to secure, Anglo-American relationships, the efficacy of British diplomacy and its contribution to arms control and disarmament. A key theme of the study is to show how the UK managed to balance the conflicting pressures created by its determination to remain a credible nuclear power whilst wanting to pursue disarmament objectives, and how these pressures shifted over the period in question. Based on a wealth of primary sources this book opens up the largely ignored subject of the impact of arms control on the UK nuclear weapons programme. Its appraisal of the relationship between the requirements and developments of the UK nuclear weapons programme against international and domestic pressures for a test ban treaty will be of interest to anyone studying post-war British defence and foreign policy, history of science, arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation and international relations. It also provides important background information on current events involving nuclear proliferation and disarmament.
The book describes and analyses the Scanian War, which was fought from 1675 to 1679 between, on one side, primarily Brandenburg and Denmark-Norway and, on the other, Sweden. The war was mainly fought in Scania, the former Danish lands along the border with Sweden, and in northern Germany. The Danish objective was to retrieve Scania which, a generation earlier, had been captured by Sweden and ceded by Denmark. However, the Danish invasion of Scania was defeated by the young Swedish King Charles XI. Although the Danish fleet was victorious at sea, and an alliance headed by Brandenburg defeated the Swedes in Germany, the subsequent peace negotiations resulted in no major territorial changes. Danish partisans continued guerrilla operations in Scania for years, yet the former Danish territories remained in Swedish hands. The Scanian War was bloody, even by contemporary standards, and from a military point of view, quite inconclusive. Yet, Sweden's experiences in the Scanian War laid the foundation for the first substantial reform of the Swedish army since the Thirty Years' War. Based on what he had learnt, King Charles XI restructured the Swedish army and established a comprehensive military system that enabled Sweden to repeatedly mobilise trained armies during the even more devastating Great Northern War (1700-1721) which followed a generation later. Moreover, several recent archaeological excavations have increased our knowledge of the Scanian War, as well as the conditions of late seventeenth-century battles. The book describes the war and its results, and summarises the archaeological findings.