Ceylon became a vital Allied and imperial bastion following the fall of Singapore. Forces were rushed to its defence in the dark days of 1942, because if the Japanese had managed to take the island, the sea lanes of the Indian Ocean, vital to imperial and Allied communications, would have been threatened. Furthermore, as traditional sources were lost to the Japanese, Ceylon became the Allies' main source of rubber, an essential material of war. Ceylon at War explains why the British War Cabinet considered the island to be strategically vital as it became a surrogate Singapore following Japan's dramatic conquest of South-east Asia and Burma. It documents the measures taken to defend the island and the flight of thousands of civilians and service personnel to its harbours as they fled in the face of Japanese forces fanning out across South-east Asia and the Dutch East Indies. The April 1942 Japanese raids on Colombo and Trincomalee, described by Churchill as `the most dangerous moment of the war', are described, as are the concurrent naval manoeuvres off Ceylon's coast as the same Japanese fleet that had devastated Pearl Harbor sought to extinguish the Royal Navy in eastern waters. Ceylon's role as a base for imperial and Allied forces and headquarters of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten's South East Asia Command is explained, along with the transformations brought to the island by the war.
Table of contents:
Chapter 1 - The surrogate Singapore;
Chapter 2 - `Refugee harbour': The flight to Ceylon;
Chapter 3 - Fortifying the island;
Chapter 4 - `The most dangerous moment': The Japanese raids;
Chapter 5 - Life in Ceylon
There have been few books written in English about the French Army during the Great War. Those that have are scarcely illustrated. This book aims to provide a highly readable and succinct account of the work of the French Army on the Western Front, as well as provide the reader with a wealth of photographs that show the daily life of the French soldier both in and out of the trenches. All of the images are contemporary, many coming from war-time and post-war magazines, interspersed with many previously unpublished images.
The book aims to give a concise overview of the war seen through French eyes and includes the casualties incurred. Although the May 1917 mutinies were an important but brief part of the story, they are not dealt with at any length because they can distract from the main story of the valour shown by the French troops in battles were the casualties were extremely high. Also included is a lengthy introduction which explains the structure of the army at the onset of the war, some of the problems it faced, and a section that looks at the uniforms worn and how they changed during the war.
Many think of the United States Marine Corps as a second land army, and while it has been employed in that capacity, it is foremost a naval expeditionary force able to seize, secure, and defend advanced naval bases in support of major campaigns.
The Corps dates back to the Revolutionary War, but while they served in the conflicts of the 19th century, they are famed for their part in the wars of the 20th century. On the Western Front in World War I they were blooded at Belleau Wood. Between the wars the Corps developed amphibious tactics which were employed to great effect during the Pacific island campaigns during World War II including the infamous battles of Peleliu, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The names of the Corps is forever entwined with the battles of Inchon and Chosin Reservoir in Korea, and Hue and Khe Sanh in Vietnam. The US Marines have continued their expeditionary role to this day, undertaking not only combat operations but also peacekeeping, peace enforcement, humanitarian relief, and short-notification/limited-duration contingency operations.
This concise history charts the evolution of the Corps as it has adapted to changing combat over two centuries.
From the start of the First World War casualties were far higher than had been anticipated. The losses required rapid replacement in order to maintain operational effectiveness, but the provision of manpower and the drafting processes would require consideration and refinement throughout the war.
Using original sources, this work examines the provision and management of Other Rank replacements for British Infantry battalions on the Western Front. It is predominantly pitched at the management level, but the subject requires exploration of the political context and the impact on battalions of political and managerial decisions. The provision of new sources of manpower with the coming of conscription and the introduction of National Service are considered, and the suggestion that the Government actively withheld reinforcements in 1918 is reviewed.
The initial influx of volunteers had created a much larger Army than had previously existed. The maintenance of its battalions consequently required the creation of new draft-finding units and successive changes to be made to the drafting and reinforcement processes. It has previously been assumed that these changes and the introduction of conscription destroyed the cohesion of regiments by causing replacements to be drafted with no concern for the traditional recruiting areas of the battalions to which they were sent. Detailed analysis of individual fatalities sustained by battalions belonging to Regiments recruited from the English/Welsh Marches of Western Command shows, however, that the majority of men in these battalions in late 1918 had been drawn from the Regiments' parent Home Command.
This subject appeals not only because it is dramatic and controversial, but also because of the complexity, uncertainty and unpredictability of raiding. Leadership was critical since raiding posed many challenges including vicious hand-to-hand fighting most often at night in unfamiliar trenches. These are just some of the reasons why raids are high in "human interest."
The book examines the nature, purposes, mechanics, execution and value of trench raiding. In this it succeeds admirably. It is also unique in three aspects. First, it shares the originality that features so strongly in all of Radley's books. This in itself is appealing given that all too many books today seem to be less original that they are reiterative. While there have been in the past two accounts of raiding, in this latest work originality shines through in Radley's choice and use of sources; in the imaginative use of Kipling's six honest serving men that makes the answers to Kipling's queries stand out sharply; and in the detailed description of preparing raid plans and orders, including their format, content and increasing sophistication. No other book so thoroughly and clearly guides readers from conception to plan and then translation into operation orders and instructions. What is also evident is this soldier-historian's ability, which stems from long-service in the Canadian Army (Regular), and sound military education including Staff College, to apply the tests of military probability, soldierly logic and military common sense to what he has studied. These enable interrogation of misapprehension, nuance and unfounded deductions and conclusions.
In a definitive new account of the Soviet Union at war, Alexander Hill charts the development, successes and failures of the Red Army from the industrialisation of the Soviet Union in the late 1920s through to the end of the Great Patriotic War in May 1945. Setting military strategy and operations within a broader context that includes national mobilisation on a staggering scale, the book presents a comprehensive account of the origins and course of the war from the perspective of this key Allied power. Drawing on the latest archival research and a wealth of eyewitness testimony, Hill portrays the Red Army at war from the perspective of senior leaders and men and women at the front line to reveal how the Red Army triumphed over the forces of Nazi Germany and her allies on the Eastern Front, and why it did so at such great cost.
In September 1944 the Western Allies mounted an audacious attempt to seize a crossing over the Rhine into Germany in a bid to end the Second World War quickly. Yet despite the deployment of thousands of American, British and Polish airborne troops, in conjunction with the efforts of ground forces to link up with them, ultimately at Arnhem in the Netherlands, the plan failed spectacularly and the war continued well into 1945.
Famously depicted in the blockbuster film A Bridge Too Far (1977) the operation, codenamed Market Garden, has attained iconic status and is the subject of countless books, documentaries and articles, and is subjected to more speculation than almost any other Allied operation of the war. After 70 years it is time to re-evaluate the importance, impact and outcome of Market Garden, alongside a wider reappraisal of the fighting in the Low Countries in the autumn of 1944.
This collection of essays addresses such questions as: Why did Market Garden take place? Why did it fail? What were the consequences of the operation? How did it impact on the experience of war in the Low Countries in 1944? How and why has it been depicted, studied and commemorated in the years since 1944? How did Market Garden fit into the overall campaign in the Low Countries in the autumn of 1944?
Operation Market Garden: The Campaign for the Low Countries, Autumn 1944: Seventy Years On is the result of a major international conference held at the University of Wolverhampton in September 2014. The contributors are drawn from a body of historians, military professionals and researchers who met to re-evaluate these questions after the passage of 70 years. It highlights many new areas of interest and forces us to rethink our understanding of this pivotal period of the Second World War
The war in the Far East between 1941 and 1945 is occasionally referred to as the 'Forgotten War' and this description extends to the way the campaign's air war has been analysed. However, the role of air power in Burma was vitally important to the campaign, in particular the attainment of air superiority in order to facilitate supply and close support operations. The foundation of these operations was dependent on the Allies achieving and maintaining air superiority and latterly air supremacy over the Japanese. The British lost air superiority during the initial Japanese attacks as their early warning system, aircraft, aircrew and tactics did not match their adversary's capabilities.
This book will analyse how the Allies lost air superiority during the initial exchanges, and then how technical and material difficulties were overcome before air superiority was won in 1944, and air supremacy was gained in 1945. Furthermore, the book will demonstrate how Japanese industry, their war in the Pacific, and their use of air power in Burma ultimately affected the air war's eventual outcome. The book will examine current historiography to question and corroborate existing views, as well as to reveal new information not previously published.
Fighting the People's War is an unprecedented, panoramic history of the 'citizen armies' of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and South Africa, the core of the British and Commonwealth armies in the Second World War. Drawing on new sources to reveal the true wartime experience of the ordinary rank and file, Jonathan Fennell fundamentally challenges our understanding of the War and of the relationship between conflict and socio-political change. He uncovers how fractures on the home front had profound implications for the performance of the British and Commonwealth armies and he traces how soldiers' political beliefs, many of which emerged as a consequence of their combat experience, proved instrumental to the socio-political changes of the postwar era. Fighting the People's War transforms our understanding of how the great battles were won and lost as well as how the postwar societies were forged.
The Chance Vought F4U Corsair is one of the most prestigious aircraft in the world. It was built in more than 12,000 specimens in six major versions, used by some air forces up to the 1970s. The Corsair, after difficult starts, was one of the architects of the success of the US naval air force during the Second World War. With 144 pages, nearly 200 unpublished profiles of this legendary aircraft have been produced by two great world aviation specialists and illustrators.