This book is a study of the Russo Japanese War of 1904-1905, as seen through the eyes of the British Naval Attache, Captain William Pakenham. The complicated set of international relations at the turn of the century is reviewed, as well as the balance of sea power in the Far East, which was a matter of considerable importance to the British government. The role of the naval attache was thus of considerable importance, particularly once war had broken out.
Pakenham quickly became a trusted colleague of Admiral Togo, the Japanese commander-in-chief, and went to sea with the Japanese fleet during the great battles of the naval campaign.
The war had already begun before Pakenham arrived in the Far East, commencing with a lightning strike by the Japanese at the Russian base of Port Arthur. Once there Pakenham sent a stream of comprehensive reports not only describing the naval actions but also dealing with crucial matters relating for instance to the design of warships, developments in gunnery and the use of torpedoes. These were closely studied at the British Admiralty, at a time when the revolutionary design of the new battleship Dreadnought was under consideration.
Pakenham, who came from a well-known naval family, was one of those personalities around whom legends grew, and he was certainly well established as an eccentric. He was greatly admired by his Japanese hosts for the courage he displayed under fire.
This book provides an overview of the military forces, and their antecedents, of the Arabian Gulf States. Most were British Protected States, resulting in their armed forces being heavily influenced by the British military. The States are: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and the United Arab Emirates and its constituent Emirates of (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Umm al Quwain, Ajman and Fujairah). Military forces include the Bahrain Levy Corps, Trucial Oman Levies, Trucial Oman Scouts, Union Defence Force, Federal Armed Force, Abu Dhabi Defence Force, Dubai Defence Force, Ras Al-Khaimah Mobile Force, Sharjah National Guard, Umm Al-Quwain National Guard and Sultan's Armed Forces of Oman, plus selected paramilitary and police forces.
This narrative includes historical information regarding the various states and enables the reader to understand easily how the various militaries have evolved.
The military forces mainly evolved from Emiri (princely) and city guards into competent military organisations with some of the world most sophisticated military technology. British seconded and contract officers and men shaped these forces through establishing, leading, advising and training them.
Maps of the areas concerned are provided, along with a glossary of terms and many ORBATs in diagrammatical form. Historical overviews and military history of the forces is provided along with regimental histories for Oman. Scores of photographs are included showing the uniforms and a selection of badges and insignia.
The work has been written by Cliff Lord and Dr Athol Yates. Cliff has had published a number of books including a history of the Armed Forces of Aden and the Protectorate, which in some respects is a lead on to this history. Dr Athol Yates is Assistant Professor at Al Khalifa University in Abu Dhabi and specialises in military history and security. The authors have a wealth of photographs and information from interviews with veterans of many of the forces included, and help from the Trucial Oman Scouts Association, Sultan's Armed Forces Association, and have had access to archival and museum research in Britain and the Gulf States.
Disputes between Ecuador and Peru are nearly 200 years old and revolve around the question of Ecuador's territory extending beyond the Andes and into the Amazonian basin - or not.
Based on diverse interpretations of the Real Cedulas (Royal Proclamations) Spain used to define its colonial territories in the Americas, they became the source of the longest-running international armed conflict in the Western Hemisphere.
Despite numerous attempts at a negotiated definition of the borders, the two countries fought no less than three wars during the 20th Century. Tensions dating back to the 19th Century resulted in skirmishes in 1938, which escalated into a war fought in July 1941. Further armed clashes took place in early 1981, and again in 1995.
Based on extensive research in the official archives of the Fuerza Aerea del Peru (FAP), as well as documentation from multiple private sources, `The Air Wars Between Ecuador and Peru, Volume 1' is the story of a little-known and brief, yet intensive and bitter aerial war. Taking place at the time that World War II savaged most of Europe, this conflict has attracted little attention outside Ecuador and Peru - although it is unique as significant for the studies of causes and resolutions of international conflicts: the two countries share not only language, culture, religious preferences, and social and ethnic diversity, but economic difficulties. Moreover, for most of their modern times, they have been democracies. Thus, their wars put in doubt the common contention that `democracies never go to war with each other'.
Using sources from both parties of the conflict, `The Air Wars between Ecuador and Peru, Volume 1' avoids the usual, biased and one-sided coverage of conflicts between Ecuador and Peru. It provides intricate details on the military capabilities and intentions of armed forces on both sides, their training, planning, and the conduct of combat operations.
Moreover, illustrated with over 100 exclusive photographs, most of which have never been published before, half a dozen maps and 15 colour profiles, this book provides the first authoritative account of the air warfare between Ecuador and Peru in July 1941. As such it is an indispensable source of reference for professionals and enthusiasts alike.
In June 1941 - during the first week of the Nazi invasion in the Soviet Union - the quiet cornfields and towns of Western Ukraine were awakened by the clanking of steel and thunder of explosions; this was the greatest tank battle of the Second World War. About 3,000 tanks from the Red Army Kiev Special Military District clashed with about 800 German tanks of Heeresgruppe South. Why did the numerically superior Soviets fail? Hundreds of heavy KV-1 and KV-2 tanks, the five-turret giant T-35 and famous T-34 failed to stop the Germans.
Based on recently available archival sources, A. Isaev describes the battle from a new point of view: that in fact it's not the tanks, but armoured units, which win or lose battles. The Germans during the Blitzkrieg era had superior tactics and organisations for their tank forces. The German Panzer Division could defeat their opponents not by using tanks, but by using artillery, which included heavy artillery, and motorized infantry and engineers. The Red Army's armoured units - the Mechanized Corps - had a lot of teething troubles, as all of them lacked accompanying infantry and artillery. In 1941 the Soviet Armoured Forces had to learn the difficult science - and mostly `art' - of combined warfare. Isaev traces the role of these factors in a huge battle around the small Ukrainian town of Dubno. Popular myths about impregnable KV and T-34 tanks are laid to rest. In reality, the Germans in 1941 had the necessary tools to combat them.
The author also defines the real achievements on the Soviet side: the blitzkrieg in the Ukraine had been slowed down. For the Soviet Union, the military situation in June 1941 was much worse than it was for France and Britain during the Western Campaign in 1940. The Red Army wasn't ready to fight as a whole and the border district's armies lacked infantry units, as they were just arriving from the internal regions of the USSR. In this case, the Red Army tanks became the `Iron Shield' of the Soviet Union; they even operated as fire brigades. In many cases, the German infantry - not tanks - became the main enemy of Soviet armoured units in the Dubno battle. Poorly organized, but fierce, tank-based counter-attacks slowed down the German infantry - and while the Soviet tanks lost the battle, they won the war.
Under Himmler's Command addresses two areas of WWII hitherto neglected - Heinrich Himmler as a military commander, and the German staff officer corps during the last months of the war on the Eastern Front. The author, Hans-Georg Eismann, was the Operations Officer for Heeresgruppe `Weichsel' (Army Group Vistula), a German formation created in late January 1945 to which Heinrich Himmler was appointed as commander. Eismann's memoir of this period has remained unpublished for over fifty years, and its wider circulation is long overdue.
Full of fascinating detail he recounts the disturbing and sometimes bizarre atmosphere that pervaded the German high command in the East during the final months of the war. Much light is thereby thrown on Himmler the military commander, and on the final climactic battles fought on the Eastern Front during 1945. Apart from Himmler, Eismann also had the opportunity to witness many of the other top men in the Third Reich, and wrote vivid and fascinating pen-portraits of personalities such as Goering, and Hitler, both of whom the author met in person as the war drew to a close, as well as detailed accounts of what it was like to work alongside officers such as Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici and General der Panzertruppe Walther Wenck.
This is the second volume in an ongoing series of books presenting historically important material relating to the WWII German Armed Forces.
On 21 May 1940 during the ill-fated Dunkirk Campaign the British launched an operation spearheaded by two tank regiments to help secure the city of Arras. This was the only significant armoured operation mounted by the British during the campaign. Poorly coordinated and starting badly the Matilda tanks ran into the flanks of Rommel s over extended 7th Panzer Division. With the German anti-tank guns, unable to penetrate the armour of the British tanks, Rommel s infantry fell into chaos as the Matildas plunged deep into their flank. The Germans were machinegunned and started to surrendered in large numbers but with the British infantry lagging well behind, fighting their own battles in the villages, there was no one to round them up. Into this scene of chaos entered Rommel whose personal leadership and example started to steady his troops and organise an effective response, despite being spattered with the brains of his aide de camp. This was classic Rommel but in the aftermath, he claimed to have been attacked by five divisions.
The Arras counter-attack contributed to Hitler issuing the famous halt order to his panzers that arguably did much to allow the British Army to withdraw to Dunkirk and escape total destruction
Naval warfare is the unsung hero of ancient Greek military history, often overshadowed by the more glorified land battles. Owen Rees looks to redress the balance, giving naval battles their due attention. This book presents a selection of thirteen naval battles that span a defining century in ancient Greek history, from the Ionian Revolt and Persian Invasion to the rise of external naval powers in the Mediterranean Sea, such as the Carthaginians. Each battle is set in context. The background, wider military campaigns, and the opposing forces are discussed, followed by a narrative and analysis of the fighting. Finally, the aftermath of the battles are dealt with, looking at the strategic implications of the outcome for both the victor and the defeated. The battle narratives are supported by maps and tactical diagrams, showing the deployment of the fleets and the wider geographical factors involved in battle. Written in an accessible tone, this book successfully shows that Greek naval warfare did not start and end at the battle of Salamis
The 5th Battalion of the 60th (Royal American) Regiment was the first rifle battalion in the regular British Army. Raised in 1797, it marked a significant step in the development of British light infantry and rifle corps. Lieutenant Colonel Francis de Rottenburg, the battalion's commander for almost 10 years, formulated the first British Army light infantry manual.
After serving in Ireland during the 1798 rebellion, in the West Indies, and in the Americas, the battalion rose to fame during the Peninsular War. It was one of only three battalions to be present from the initial landings in Portugal through to the invasion of France, and victory six years later. Divided between the brigades of Wellington's army to provide specialist rifle and skirmishing capability, the riflemen often formed advance or rear guards, patrols and outposts. Frequently praised by Wellington and his divisional commanders, the battalion won 16 battle honours.
Drawing on official records, memoirs, court martial transcripts, inspection reports, and unpublished letters, Riflemen recounts not only the campaigns in which the battalion fought, but also many personal stories of the soldiers who served with it. Riflemen includes tales of murder, promotion from the ranks, desertion, prisoners of war, and small actions that are often overlooked. As the first history of the battalion written in almost 100 years, it sheds new light on a vital component of Wellington's army and its important place in the history of the British Army.
The book is the first to examine comprehensively the experience of the Highland soldier in the Great War, seeking the truth behind the myths. It does not deal with the operational history, but with the life and character of the Highland soldier. It involves a far more comprehensive search of the original sources than previously attempted, being based on the original letters, diaries and accounts of serving soldiers and officers, principally from the Imperial War Museum, the Liddle Collection, the National Library of Scotland and the Regimental Museums, which together provide great richness of personal detail. Much work on Highland soldiers, and almost all popular work, has perpetuated myths about their unique character and martial spirit. This book critically examines such mythology and offers new insights into the practicality of the kilt, the use of the pipes, identity and morale, and frank revelations about courage, nerves, shell-shock and failure and the ruthless use of the bayonet. The whole is evidence based and scholastically sound, but nevertheless thoroughly readable and accessible to the general reader.
The book reviews the Highland regiments before the declaration of war in 1914, including the kilted regiments not only of Scotland, but of England and the Empire. This includes an examination of their nature, composition, recent battle experience in South Africa and the Empire, sense of identity, public image and reputation. It then reviews the Highland battalions which actually went to war, including not only the pre-war Regular and Territorial battalions, but also the additional Territorial, Service, Garrison and Reserve battalions raised in the United Kingdom, together with the battalions raised for war service in Canada and South Africa. Specifically, it examines their composition, including Gaelic speakers, non-Highland Scots, recruits from the other home countries, including England, from the Empire and from foreign countries. It examines how composition varied between Regular, Territorial and Kitchener battalions etc, and how it changed with huge losses, replacement drafts and the introduction of conscription. It further examines the background of both officers and men and the reasons why they specifically joined Highland regiments.
Pirates and Privateers narrates the incredible careers of the most interesting and infamous pirates in history, including legends like Blackbeard, Captain Kidd, and Anne Bonney.
The romantic image of the pirate has been seen as something of a Hollywood icon ever since Errol Flynn first climbed the rigging for the film Captain Blood, in 1935. The hugely successful Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy, starring the megastar Johnny Depp, proved undoubtedly that swashbuckling sells.
But what do we know about the real Captain Jack Sparrows of yesteryear? Who were they? Where did they come from? And what heinous and daring acts did they perform on the path towards riches and infamy?
Pirates and Privateers delves into the real lives of these men and women, whose seafaring adventures have become legendary. It explores the criminal careers of some of the most fascinating scoundrels and scallywags in history, including Blackbeard, the Barbarossa Brothers, Captain Kidd, Anne Bonney and Mary Read.